Radiation model

The radiation model in KFX® is based on the Shah and Lockwood model. This model is often referred to as the Discrete Transfer model (DTM). The KFX® version of the model has many innovative extensions that enable efficient and accurate calculation of radiation exchange between gas and smoke and surrounding solid objects.

The basic concept of this model is that radiation exchange is calculated by integration of radiation absorption and emittance along a huge number of rays (lines) through out the calculation domain.

From the boundary of a box inside the calculation domain, rays are sent at a discrete number of directions from each control volume surface on the enclosing box. The rays that are sent out will emit and absorb radiation along their paths. 

In free flow control volumes, they will make contribution to the fluid energy equation. On solid surfaces, they contribute to the solid temperature equation. Each solid surface should ideally be hit by enough rays to get an integrated flux that represents the load from the fire and surrounding warm surfaces. Actually the Shah and Lockwood model is constructed so that it converges towards the exact solution of the basic equation for radiation as the number of rays goes towards infinity.

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